Supervised learning is a type of machine learning in which an algorithm learns to map input data (also known as features or predictors) to output data (also known as labels or targets) based on a set of training examples that are already labeled.
The general process of supervised learning involves the following steps:
- Data preparation: Collecting and cleaning the data, and splitting it into training and testing sets.
- Feature engineering: Selecting and transforming the features to improve the accuracy of the model.
- Model selection: Choosing an appropriate algorithm or model for the problem at hand.
- Training the model: Feeding the labeled training data into the algorithm or model to learn the mapping between the input and output data.
- Evaluating the model: Testing the model on the testing data to assess its accuracy and generalization ability.
- Tuning the model: Adjusting the hyperparameters of the model to optimize its performance on the testing data.
Supervised learning algorithms can be broadly classified into two types: regression and classification. Regression algorithms are used to predict continuous output values, such as predicting the price of a house based on its features. Classification algorithms are used to predict discrete output values, such as classifying an email as spam or not spam.
Some popular supervised learning algorithms include linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, support vector machines, and neural networks. These algorithms differ in their assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses, and the choice of algorithm depends on the specific problem and the characteristics of the data.
Overall, supervised learning is a powerful and widely used technique in machine learning that has applications in a wide range of fields, such as finance, healthcare, and computer vision.